Prototypical Categorization of Conceptual Metaphors in Dholuo
There has been an insatiable interest in the study of conceptual metaphors across languages. This has been prompted by the principal reason that for a long time, the traditional approach to the study of metaphors had taken centre stage with most scholars viewing metaphor as a decorative mechanism in which a word is used to replace another even though no new information is emanated. It was not until the revolutionary study of Lakoff and Johnson (1980) that scholars started exploring metaphor from a different perspective. This paper was guided by the following objective: to prototypically categorize conceptual metaphors in Dholuo. The study employed the prototype theory by Rosch et al. (1976). Before this theory was put to use, metaphors were identified by employing Metaphor Identification Procedure proposed by Crisp et al. (2007) in order to identify lexical items that are metaphorical in nature after which they were prototypically classified, interpreted and finally explained. Data was collected using a tape recorder and analyzed qualitatively. The tape recorder was used, since it reduces the chances of collecting data selectively. Also the information recorded could be played over to be able to thoroughly study and critically examine it (Mugenda & Mugenda, 1999). After the metaphorical expressions were identified, they were transcribed and translated with both the literal and figurative meanings being given, and thereafter, translated to the language of study. The study found out that the body is the principal source domain of conceptual metaphors and, it is the focal point from which metaphorical mappings are carried out. It also noted that grouping by prototype is important since it provides an avenue where individuals make sense of their experiences and learn about their world through embodiment.